Nearly nine in 10 women said they would rather be female than male in 2016, compared to almost six in 10 in 1947.
More women were also likely to work now than in 1951 - 60% of women are in employment today compared with 31% 65 years ago.
The poll showed leaps and bounds for older females too, with today 62% of 55 to 64-year-olds in work compared with 22% in 1951.
When asked why they chose to work, more than half of women aged between 18 and 64 said the top reason was self-respect, followed by money, then colleagues and the work environment.
Women also displayed more positivity about marriage in 2016, with 42% saying they gave up equal amounts of freedom as their male partner, compared to 25% of all respondents in 1951.
Of the worries faced by women, a fifth cited money issues as the most urgent problem facing them and their family. This was most pressing among 25 to 34-year-olds (28%).
Women aged 25-34 worried the most - they were most likely to worry "a lot" about their health and family and friends' health (68%), having enough money in old age (53%) and making ends meet (51%).
Appearance was also of high importance to 18 to 24-year-olds, who said that being called fat would be worse than being called "stupid" and "boring".
Across all of the women polled, 42% said "stupid" was the word they would least like to be called.
Woman's Hour Editor, Alice Feinstein, comments: "It's fascinating to see the results of this candid poll and hear women's views on family, work and relationships, and it's intriguing to work out what's changed and what's remained the same since Woman's Hour started 70 years ago."